I. Nature and Scale of Urban Development
1. Functional Positioning and Nature of Jing’an District
An important part of the central business district of Shanghai, a major component of Shanghai international economic, financial and trade center, the important window of the east-west scenic axis (Lujiazui-Bund-Jing’an Temple-Hongqiao) of Shanghai, and a comprehensive central district (business, residence, office and entertainment) having the coordinated development of high-quality commerce, business, real estate, service trade and social undertakings and keeping a considerable scale of residence.
Based on such functional positioning, the main function and construction goal of Jing’an District are planned as: a high-quality commercial and business district and a high-quality residential district in the downtown areas of Shanghai.
2. Land Use Distribution and Total Building Capacity
The plan will further adjust the structure of land use and the total building capacity so as to cater to and boost the development and improvement of the urban planning of Jing’an District. By the end of the planning period, the land use for residence shall account for 41% of the total land use in the district, that for business, office and culture and entertainment services 21%, that for scientific research, education, sanitation, and sports 9%, that for urban roads and parking lots 20%, that for public green areas 4%, that for industrial warehouses 0.6%, and that for public utilities, waters, special purposes and others, 4.4%. By the end of the planning period, the total building capacity in the district shall reach 16,400,000 m2, which includes 9,000,000 m2 of residential buildings, 3,600,000 m2 of business, trade and office buildings, 2,300,000 m2 of commerce, service and entertainment buildings, 1,300,000 m2 of science, education, sports and sanitation buildings, 100,000 m2 of industrial warehouses, and 100,000 m2 of public utilities and other facilities.
3. Population Size
Given the specified residential building capacity at the end of the planning period and the standard of comfortable living (30 m2 per household), the planned residential population size in the district shall be 300,000.
Using the yearly successive subtraction method, the annual natural population growth shall be －1850, and the mechanical population growth －1500. With the caliber adjustment of population calculation, the actual residential population at the end of the planning period shall be around 350,000.
Given the capacity of commerce buildings, office buildings and public facilities for the calculation of the working population, therein, 10 m2 per job for commerce and office buildings and 30 m2 per job for science, education, culture and sanitation and urban industries, and with the vacancy rate of 10%, the total number of jobs in the district may reach about 500,000-600,000.
II. General Layout and Functional Zones
The “one axis and two wings” framework for the general layout shall be adopted for organizing social and economic activities in the district.
The “one axis” means the area along Nanjing Road in Jing'an District, which covers an area of 1.8 km2 and has about 1,800,000 m2 of business and office buildings and 800,000 m2 of commercial buildings. Lying on the east-west urban development axis (Lujiazui-Bund-Jing’an Temple-Hongqiao Airport) of Shanghai, it is not only one of the CBDs of Shanghai and one of the international economic, financial and trade centers, but also the main axis and golden corridor for the social and economic development of Jing’an District. Therefore, it is the most important feature of the Jing’an “High-quality Commercial and Business District”.
The “two wings” include the “south wing” south of Yan’an Road ～ Weihai Road and the “north wing” north of Yuyuan Road ～ Beijing Road. As one of the ten historical building protection areas of Shanghai, the “south wing” is a top-grade residential area and office area featuring garden residence, new types of lanes and historical apartment buildings and covering an area of 0.96 m2. The “north wing”, which covers the area of 3.86 km2, has a large area of high-rise residential quarters that have replaced the old industrial areas and the shaky sheds and crude shacks. The “two wings” represent the important function of “high-quality residential district” of Jing’an.
With the general framework of “one axis and two wings”, the whole district is divided into seven functional zones.
South Zone (south of Yan’an Road): in the “south wing”, covering 0.97 km2. The area with the concentration of garden residence and new types of lanes in the district and one of the historical protection areas of Shanghai; one of the three major hotel areas of Shanghai, having important municipal-level medical and cultural facilities; having many top-grade apartment buildings for foreigners and medium- and small-sized office buildings for foreigners.
West Zone (Jing’an Temple Area): at the west section of the “main axis” of the district, covering an area of 0.87 km2. The most important comprehensive CBD and cultural, entertainment, tourist and hotel area in Jing’an District and in the west downtown area of Shanghai; one of the major comprehensive traffic interchange hubs in West Shanghai; part of the Shanghai scenic and tourist axis and an important leisure gathering center with Jing’an Temple and Jing’an Part as the core; cultural window area with the concentration of modern historical sites that reflect the integration of Chinese and Western cultures.
Middle Zone (Shanghai Centre～Westgate Mall): at the middle section of the “main axis” of the district, covering an area of 0.96 km2. A high-end business center in Jing’an District and one of the four high-end office building areas in Shanghai; one of the centers of luxury and fashionable consumer goods and one of the international business centers in Shanghai; one of the important areas for political activities, foreign affairs and large exhibitions; one of the areas with the perfect integration of historical buildings and modern urban buildings. East Zone (Wangjiasha～Shanghai Television Station): at the east section of the “main axis” of the district, covering an area of 0.96 km2. One of the traditional business centers in Jing’an District, with the concentration of old and famous shops, specialized streets and specialized commercial buildings; an area leading in culture, mass media, and information service and trade with Shanghai Television Station and Wenhui Xinmin Newspaper Group as the backbone players; one of the major residential areas in the district, and one of the protection areas of historical residential buildings.
Northwest Zone (Caojiadu~South Wuning Road): at the west end of the “north wing”, covering am area of 1.29 km2. One of the major modern high-rise residential areas in the district; an important part of the Caojiadu Business Center featuring trans-district comprehensive commercial services; an area with the concentration of commerce, trade, cultural activities and entertainment with South Wuning Road as the center.
North-middle Zone (Changping Road~Changde Road): at the heart of the “north wing”, covering an area of 1.16 km2. One of the major modern high-rise residential areas in the district and the center of residential areas; a major business and service center and a center of administration, culture, sports and scientific activities in the “north wing” with Changping Road as the main part.
Northeast Zone (Jiangning Road~Suzhou River): at the east end of the “north wing”, covering an area of 1.41 km2. One of the major modern high-rise residential areas in the district; one part of the residential and tourist sight-seeing belt along the Suzhou River of Shanghai; a commerce, service and trade center and a center of public cultural activities with Jiangning Road as the main part.
III. Plan and Layout of Industrial Development
The commercial development of Jing’an District shall comply with the “Outline of Jing’an District for Commercial Revitalization”, focus on the formulation of the municipal-level key commercial circle along Nanjing Road in Jing’an District (including the two major commercial centers of Jing’an Temple and West Nanjing Road) and form a multi-level and large-scale international commercial area with special characteristics. Meanwhile, the commercial points in the surrounding areas shall be expanded and efforts shall be stepped up in developing handy community commercial services for people so as to build a series of special-feature commercial buildings, industries and streets that enjoy high reputation both in Shanghai and in China. According to the plan, general merchandise (primarily top-grade), clothing (primarily fashion), food, services (primarily culture, entertainment and intermediary industry) and tourism shall become the five pillars for the commercial development of Jing’an District in the “10th Five-year Plan Period”. Meanwhile new growth areas shall be fostered in the automobile trade, household decoration, computers, household appliances and other industries to form important support for the regional economy. The annual increase in the total capacity of commercial economy shall reach 10%. We shall reinforce the readjustment of the business model, and strengthen the core position of internationally well-known department stores, shopping centers and franchised shops in the business model of Jing’an District. By the end of the “10th Five-year Plan Period”, the sales volume shall rise from the current RMB 2 billion Yuan to RMB 4 billion Yuan. Meanwhile, the construction of chain shops shall be expanded and the total number of supermarkets, convenience stores and franchised shops shall reach 500 with the annual business volume of RMB 300-500 million Yuan. In addition, about ten special-feature business streets shall be built including Weihai Road, Shaanxi Road, Shimen Road and Yuyuan Road. We shall formulate new strategies for brand development, reinforce the construction of large-scale trade and circulation, focus on the cultivation of the “little giant” brand advantages, and promote the coordinated development of commodity brands and store brands, traditional brands and burgeoning brands, and district brands, domestic brands and international brands. Meanwhile we shall use the commercial brands for developing commodity brands, take advantage of the commercial opportunities in serving as proxy for imported brands to expand the business of exclusive distribution and general agency, and vigorously develop such new types of business as electronic commerce, postal commerce and paperless trade. The proportion of wholesale trade shall increase from the current 48% to 60%.
Among the “four streets and four towns”--- the main framework of business distribution in Shanghai, West Nanjing Road is an international top-grade business area and a center of fashionable goods featuring high-end business area, hotel area and apartment area and radiating to the whole city. The whole street is composed of four business models including large modern plazas, special-feature commercial buildings, franchised shops of popular brands, and traditionally old and famous shops. It has two business centers, namely, the Jing’an Temple Area and West Nanjing Road Area.
1) Jing’an Temple Business Center: It is a block-type business area. Its core part is the four 50,000~100,000 m2 plazas, viz. New Joinbuy, Pacific, Wheelock and Concord, which are surrounded by a group of specialized commercial buildings like Joinbuy Home Decoration, old and famous shops like Lei Yun Shang and San Yang Sheng, and entertainment and catering facilities like Paramount and Jing’an Temple Square Underground World. The total capacity of commercial buildings reaches 400,000 m2. Together with Jing’an Ancient Temple, Jing’an Park, the subway station and the public square, it forms the largest and most charming business, shopping, cultural and leisure center in West Shanghai.
2) West Nanjing Road Business Center: It is a belt-type business center extending from Xikang Road to Qinghai Road. The west section consists of four 50,000-100,000 m2 plazas, viz. Westgate Mall, Plaza 66, Citic Pacific and Asia Plaza, and the franchised shops of world’s top brands like Zhong’an Mingpin. The middle section has such specialized commercial buildings as special-feature streets of catering business, entertainment, antiques and philately. The public spaces along the road include the three small squares at Xikang Road Intersection, Shimen Road Intersection and Qinghai Road Intersection, the subway stations and the Wujiang Road Pedestrian Street. According to the plan, the four plazas will be connected through platforms or tunnels, with space reserved for large underground parking lots on the north side. With the total capacity of commercial buildings of 400,000 m2, it will become the best top-grade fashionable goods center and international business center in Shanghai. Tongli and Xiangyang. In the west section are a group of old and famous shops and some The section between the Jing’an Temple Area and West Nanjing Road Area is 400m long with wide sidewalks. The architectural style along this section is the most delicate and graceful on Nanjing Road. According to the plan, a series of leisure places will be built there, including small squares, stages, outdoor bars and cafes, and activities will be held to show the rich culture of Jing’an District. so as to form a beautiful corridor of leisure culture connecting the two business centers.
Modern business is a major function of the downtown district of an international metropolis. It generally includes all kinds of office buildings, hotels, exhibition halls, conference facilities, trading places and the various supporting intermediary service buildings. At the heart of Shanghai downtown areas, Jing’an CBD mainly goes along Nanjing Road and extends to Yan’an Road, Weihai Road and the south section of Jiangning Road, with the total building capacity of 2.4 million m2. It boasts such advantages as the central geographical position, top-grade business composition, well-developed intermediary services, superb space environment and reputable backbone buildings. The three CBDs of Shanghai, the other two being the Lujiazui~Bund CBD that features policy advantages, financial industry and trading markets, and the Hongqiao Foreign Trade Zone that features large initial scale, foreign trade exhibition halls, adjacency to foreign consulates and major residential area for foreign businessmen, all have their unique characteristics and can supplement one another in development. Jing’an CBD has become the largest and best business area in downtown Shanghai. The reinforcement and emergence of the modern business function is a new area for economic growth with the greatest potential for development, which can promote the sustainable development of the economy and society in Jing'an District. The plan shall uphold the three development strategies, viz. strengthening the advantages, attracting new businesses and controlling the increase. In the downtown areas, while maintaining the leading advantages over Huaihai Road and Xujiahui CBD, Jing’an CBD shall develop together with the Pudong~Bund Central Financial Trade Zone and Hongqiao Foreign Trade Zone by retaining specialties and supplementing one another, thus jointly forming the multi-center layout of CBDs in Shanghai. We should focus on the opening for business of the office buildings along Nanjing Road and promote the overall planning of investment promotion and market segments of the over 60 foreign-funded and domestic-funded buildings along the road. Meanwhile we should take advantage of the trend that the municipal-level cultural, media and information service institutions of newspaper, television, art, exhibition, consultation, ads planning and legal service are moving to Jing’an, and arrange for the settlement of a group of intermediary service enterprises that can promote business development. We should strengthen the special advantage of Jing’an CBD in convenient comprehensive services and prepare for the new wave of business institutions coming to Jing’an after China joined the WTO. Thus we can further establish and reinforce the position of Jing’an CBD as one of the four hot spots for the development of top-grade office buildings in Shanghai (viz. Lujiazui, West Nanjing Road, Hongqiao Development Zone and Middle Huaihai Road).
According to the plan, the total capacity of office buildings shall not increase. The total capacity along Nanjing Road and Yan’an Road shall be kept at around 2.5 million m2 (with 100,000 m2 reserved for the increase of business buildings like Shanghai Convention Center), and the total capacity in the areas suitable for developing business and office buildings around Chengdu Road Viaduct and along South Wuning Road and Jiangning Road, including the newly-built office buildings for commercial purposes and those built or rebuilt by enterprises for their own use, shall not exceed 400,000 m2.
As the international trend shows, the pattern of healthy development of the downtown areas of modern cities has shifted from the traditional pattern of “pure office area” to the pattern of comprehensive area of “Hotel/Office/Parking/Shopping/Convention/Apartment”, also called the HOPSCA pattern. This is the characteristics and advantages of Shanghai downtown areas, particularly the Nanjing Road Area in Jing’an District. As one of the three districts of luxury hotels in Shanghai, Jing’an District has the particular cliental sources and other advantages for the development of tourism and cultural & entertainment services. By the end of the planning period, the number of medium- and high-grade hotels in Jing’an District will reach 38, with the total building area of 1 million m2, 12000 rooms and the accommodation capacity of over 7 million person times. Three hotel clusters will come into being at Jing’an Temple (Hilton, Hotel Equatorial, Shanghai Hotel, Jing’an Hotel, 4507, Aviation Centre and Bailemen Hotel), Shanghai Centre (Portman Ritz-Carlton, JC Mandarin and Shangri-la) and Shimen Road (Four Seasons Hotel, Holiday Inn and Harbor Hotel), making Jing’an District the largest tourist accommodation center in the downtown areas of Shanghai. The position of Jing’an District as a tourist accommodation center in Shanghai should serve as the basis for the development of tourism, entertainment and services in the district. We should expand its function in extending consumption, promote the three types of consumption, viz. tourist shopping, special-feature tourist catering and tourist culture and entertainment, boost the development of shopping, culture, entertainment, restaurant and leisure along Nanjing Road, facilitate the growth of Yuyuan Road, Wujiang Road and Huashan Road as a cultural, entertainment and restaurant street or a tourist street, and built Jing’an District from simply a tourist accommodation center into a comprehensive center of tourist shopping, culture, entertainment and restaurants. In addition, we should promote the construction of tourist sights and tourist routes. For one thing, we should improve the tourist sightseeing route at the Jing’an Temple Area, bring into full play the compound advantages of the ancient temple, the park, the square, the special-feature streets, the modern historical communities, shopping malls, the For another, we should exploit the tourist route of historical and cultural buildings, and renovate, rebuild and open to public the buildings with rich historical and cultural significance, including such revolutionary relies as the Site of the 2nd CPC National Congress, China's labor Combination Secretary Department, the Commoner Women’s School, Mao Zedong's Former Residence and Cai Yuanpei’s Former Residence, the former residences of Kang Youwei, Zhang Ailing and Ruan Lingyu, and the historical buildings like the Synagogue. Furthermore, we should take advantage of the convenient transportation facilities such as the Aviation Center and subway stations and the superb geographical location of Jing’an District in the heart of Shanghai, vigorously introduce tourist agencies and other tourist services institutions, and set up two tourist consultation service centers at Jing’an Temple Area and West Nanjing Road Area, so as to promote the all-round development of tourist services in the district.
The industrial development in Jing’an District shall comply with the objective “creating new industrial advantage points” set by the Shanghai Municipal Government, stay on the road of “brand promotion for commercial industries and development of supporting sectors for large industries”, focus on developing the urban industries and high-tech industries, take it as an important aspect of work to deepen the reforms of enterprises and accelerate the progress in setting up the modern corporate system, step up the efforts in technological upgrading and development of new products, foster the growth of a group of “little industrial giants” with large market share, good quality, large scale and great strength, and form the new Jing’an pattern of industrial development in which the enterprises have HQs in Jing’an District, set up production bases in the suburbs and sell products at both domestic and overseas markets. We should redouble the efforts in readjusting the industrial structure, vigorously develop the six types of urban industries, viz. clothing, food, electronic information, business printing, office supplies and tourist handicraft articles, actively foster and boost the supporting industries with solid foundation such as communication cables, fine chemicals and metallurgical equipment, and launch a few modern high-tech projects in bio-medicine, environmental protection, energy conservation and other sectors. According to the plan, we should improve the technical level and grade of industries in the district, facilitate their technological upgrading, expand their capacity in developing new products, and set aside reserve land in the north of the district for developing urban industries.
According to the nature of the district and the positioning of its functional development, the plan shall further promote the adjustment of the land use for industrial purposes. We should take into consideration the monitoring of the three wastes (waste gas, waste water and industrial residue) on the enterprises in the district, the opinions of environmental protection authorities on readjustment and the economic performance of enterprises, keep the existing industrial enterprises with good economic performance but no pollution, and gradually eliminate those that cause heavy pollution and have poor economic performance. The focus in the readjustment and upgrading shall be on the land use for housing, commerce, green land, public utilities, roads and squares. The total land use for industrial purposes to be readjusted will amount to about 418,000 m2. Meanwhile, in line with the standards for urban industries, a small amount of land for industrial purposes will be reserved for the future development of urban industries in the district and priority will be given to developing such urban industries as electronics, food, clothing, business printing and office supplies, or the enterprise design HQs, the total land area being about 43,000 m2.